Water quality indices (WQI) were introduced aiming at giving a single value to the water quality of a source, thus reducing great amount of parameters into a simpler expression . In this book, an attempt has been made to devise a methodology to analyse various water quality parameters and then integrate them with WQI and Geographic Information System (GIS) for an effective interpretation of the quality status of groundwater by taking Delhi as a case study. Physical and chemical analysis of groundwater of Delhi was conducted and results interpreted using WQI and finally translated in sensitivity maps using GIS. The book delves in understanding water quality assessment and should be useful for anyone interested in groundwater quality issues from general public and students to policy makers.
The research presents water quality analysis of Bhadravathi in Karnataka State, India. Fourteen physico-chemical and biological parameters were considered for the analysis. The raster maps created using GIS are used to represent the spatial distribution of the parameters for both pre and post-monsoon seasons. Using physico-chemical parameters, Water Quality Index (WQI) was determined. The WQI shows 11% of the surface water samples fall under very good category during pre-monsoon and 78% in post-monsoon. The water sample at New Bridge site shows sign of pollution throughout year with WQI in the range 50-100 and hence unfit for use. In groundwater samples, 20% of samples in the pre-monsoon and 50% samples during post-monsoon fall under good quality. 50% of water samples during pre-monsoon and 60% of samples during post-monsoon fall under good category and water sample at Haladamma temple are found unfit. Further, QUAL2K model predicted the DO and BOD values considerably well along the Bhadra River from Lakkavalli to Bhadravathi Town. However, the Streeter Phelp s model estimated higher DO as compared to QUAL2K model. This is due to provision of outfall effect in Streeter Phelp s model.
The availability of water in terms of both quantity and quality is essential to the very existence of mankind. Earlier people recognized the importance of water from quantity view point. Recognition of the importance of water quality developed more slowly. In the field of water resource management, information on the water quality is an essential input. Changes in water quality can be the result of domestic, industrial or agricultural discharges. The number of physical and chemical parameters such as pH, DO, alkalinity, conductivity, total solids, hardness, inorganic and organic trace elements etc. That needs to be monitored for proper assessment of water quality of any water resource is very large. In water resource management, where classification and comparison of different water resources on the basis of water quality is often requisite, it will be more convenient to integrate the data pool in some way to produce a single number. Water Quality Index (WQI) achieves these objectives and is of great value in water resource management.
The approach of this book is to promote an understanding of surface water quality, including the hazards that can compromise water quality and develops effective measures to assess and manage risks arising from those hazards using spatial and statistical models. Evaluation of 42 drinking water quality parameters has been done on a monthly basis during 6 years. Applying a GIS tool will provide visual impacts for various hazards using WQI, which has formed a series of prediction maps for risk assessment. The results showed that surface water is remarkably influenced by wastewater discharge, especially at drought period. Prediction model proved a practical and economical value that gives an easier and effective solution through selecting the best decisions to enhance water quality, assurance of public health protection can be gained and be providing a comprehensive preventive strategy for drinking water system management can be achieved. The book is written for post-graduates, researchers and professionals involved in water quality monitoring and assessment of surface waters and want to improve the scope and reliability of their systems with using water dynamic prediction models.
An integrated survey based on satellite image interpretation corroborated with limited field checks were carried out with a view to delineate the ground water potential in parts of Y.S.R District district, Andhra Pradesh, South India. The interpretation of Remote Sensing data & GIS in conjunction with conventional data and sufficient ground truth information makes it possible to identify and outline various ground features such as geological structures, geomorphic features and their hydrologic characters that may serve as direct or indirect indicators of the presence of ground and surface water. In the present study, a detailed investigation was carried out with an objective of identifying the index of groundwater by using Water Quality Index (WQI) method. Prominent water quality parameters controlling the hydrochemical evolution of aquifer system was studied.
Wetlands are vital water bodies, as crucial in a natural ecosystem as kidney in a human body. Apart from being highly productive as the habitat of birds, fishes and a variety of other aquatic life forms-micro-organisms. Wetlands provide other ecosystem services from maintaining the natural balance and for sustaining human livelihoods. Overall wetlands all over the country are exhibiting varying degrees of environmental degradation caused by encroachments, Eutrophication, siltation, urbanization and anthropogenic activities. There is also a misconception that wetlands are only wastelands. As a result, many precious wetlands have been converted to other uses all over in the world. Highly adaptable solutions must be found to permit development activities, including tourism,subsistence agriculture, and conservation of wildlife to be each given a fair share' of the one biome the wetland. This book provides an overview of the wetland study including flora, avifauna, management and restoration measures. It contains methodology of avifaunal survey, water quality analysis and WQI. It should be especially useful to those who are working in the field of wetland and environment conservation.
The Book 'Waste Water Irrigation' is an out-come of researches of about 5 years. Waste water is a great problem in developing countries like India. The waste water in India is generated through a variety of sources and its proper disposal is not an easy task. On the other hand lots of groundwater is wasted for irrigation, particularly for vegetables, which are mostly grown in the sub-urban area. Due to enormous pumping of water by the urban population in addition to the run off loss through vegetable irrigation, the water table occasionally falls abruptly in urban area, particularly during summers. In addition solanaceous vegetables are the most prominent food stuff, which is used round the year. Therefore, series of experiments were conducted through irrigating solanaceous vegetables by sewage. WQI of the sewage water and its suitability was also studied. The yield and nutrient analysis of the harvest was explored and compared to that of the crop irrigated by normal water. Satisfactory results were obtained. The book is supposed to be useful to all, involved in the researches of environment, may be from the discipline of Botany, Zoology, Geography, Biochemistry, Engineering etc.
Different models of Water Quality Indices (WQIs) and Water Pollution Indices (WPIs) were considered as effective tools to assess the water quality and suitability for different purposes. Water and sediments samples were collected monthly from Dec., 2012 to Nov., 2013. Thirty-one water variables were measured to assess the water quality and degree of pollution. Some heavy metals in water and sediments, also TPHs, n-alkanes and PAHs were detected. According to GWQI, DWQI and IWQI ranges, the water can be classified as poor - marginal for general and irrigation use. According to NSF-WQI range the water classified as poor-unsuitable for drinking use. The water can be considered as medium - excellent for aquaculture use according to MOC-WQI range. TSI range referred to mesotrophy- eutrophy water, whereas water can be classified as very high trophic level according to TRIX range. OPI range referred to weak organic -non organic pollution status. HPI range referred to polluted water according to impermissible values of dissolved Pb, Fe and Cd. Source of n-alkanes was mainly biogenic and pyrogenic and at least petrogenic, while the source of PAHs compounds pyrogenic and petrogenic.
Surface Water Quality Assessment of Godavari River by WQI and Arc-GIS ab 54.99 € als Taschenbuch: Surface Water quality status of Godavari River under Nanded District- Maharashtra India by using water quality Indexing. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Wissenschaft, Technik,
The most effective means of consistently ensuring the safety of a drinking water supply is through the use of a comprehensive risk assessment approach that encompasses all steps in water supply from catchment to consumer. The approach of this book is to promote an understanding of the entire water supply system, including the hazards that can compromise drinking water quality, safety and develops effective measures to assess and manage risks arising from those hazards using spatial model. Comparative evaluation of certain physical, chemical and biological characteristics of raw, treated and potable water at distribution network has been ongoing. Applying a GIS model will provide visual impacts for various hazards using WQI, which has formed a series of prediction maps for risk assessment. The objective of this book is to help researchers, professionals, and end-users working in water supply systems with the identification of relevant hazards by providing a catalogue with potential hazards of technical, environmental or human origin for the entire system.
Abstract The study area (Green-Belt Project) locates in AL-Najaf Governorate in the coordinates (44o 10' 0"E & 44o 20' 0"E) and (32o 5' 0"N & 32o 15' 0"N). The study area has covering an area of about (90) km2, which contains many geological formations and represents part of Najaf-Karbala plateau. The project relies on ground water as sources of irrigation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of ground water in the project area for irrigation and suitability to use in potable purposes. Directorate of agriculture in cooperation with Directorate of wells of Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf implemented five wells which is used as sources of irrigation in this project that identified as GFW1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 , respectively in this study. GFW4 and 5 are locate in semi confined Dammam formation and deeper then GFW1, 2 and 3 which located in unconfined Dibdiba. Eleven parameters as: pH, electrical conductivity, EC, total dissolved solids, TDS, sulfate ion, SO4-2, oil & grease, O&G, cadmium, Cd, lead, Pb, chromium, Cr, iron, Fe, copper, Cu, and zinc, Zn have been selected to determine water quality index (WQI) for irrigation and potable purposes according to maximum levels of standards
The degree of treatment or treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment plant depends primarily on the condition and best usage of the receiving stream. Work is carried out here for a city which is one of the highly industrialized cities and has number of small and medium scale textile units scattered all over the city. This city has waste water treatment plant which treats the waste water and dispose the effluent in the river. Last few years the river is facing lot of pollution problems. It is necessary to study the river assimilation capacity, possible modifications to the treatment efficiency of waste water treatment plant by studying river pollution parameters. Computer programming shall be used to study the effect of different parameters on pollution treatment efficiency. Present book deals with one of such approach, prime aim of which is having to find the sensitivity of river pollution parameters. This book also involves calculating Water Quality Index (wqi) of the river water.