The research presents water quality analysis of Bhadravathi in Karnataka State, India. Fourteen physico-chemical and biological parameters were considered for the analysis. The raster maps created using GIS are used to represent the spatial distribution of the parameters for both pre and post-monsoon seasons. Using physico-chemical parameters, Water Quality Index (WQI) was determined. The WQI shows 11% of the surface water samples fall under very good category during pre-monsoon and 78% in post-monsoon. The water sample at New Bridge site shows sign of pollution throughout year with WQI in the range 50-100 and hence unfit for use. In groundwater samples, 20% of samples in the pre-monsoon and 50% samples during post-monsoon fall under good quality. 50% of water samples during pre-monsoon and 60% of samples during post-monsoon fall under good category and water sample at Haladamma temple are found unfit. Further, QUAL2K model predicted the DO and BOD values considerably well along the Bhadra River from Lakkavalli to Bhadravathi Town. However, the Streeter Phelp s model estimated higher DO as compared to QUAL2K model. This is due to provision of outfall effect in Streeter Phelp s model.
Surface water ecosystems are complex with interlinked physical, chemical and biological systems. Day to day activities of Human causes changes in these attributes thus affecting the aquatic living resources over time. In the case of fresh water resources, municipal sewage, agricultural run-off and industrial effluents gets discharged into streams, lakes and rivers thereby making these water resources unsuitable for drinking purpose. Since water is a universal solvent, most of the pollutants get dissolved easily which degrades the overall surface water quality. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct periodic monitoring of water resource. It not only helps in recording the levels of various pollutants in water bodies but also help policymakers, government bodies to formulate policies that can help protect the human health and the environment.
The availability of water in terms of both quantity and quality is essential to the very existence of mankind. Earlier people recognized the importance of water from quantity view point. Recognition of the importance of water quality developed more slowly. In the field of water resource management, information on the water quality is an essential input. Changes in water quality can be the result of domestic, industrial or agricultural discharges. The number of physical and chemical parameters such as pH, DO, alkalinity, conductivity, total solids, hardness, inorganic and organic trace elements etc. That needs to be monitored for proper assessment of water quality of any water resource is very large. In water resource management, where classification and comparison of different water resources on the basis of water quality is often requisite, it will be more convenient to integrate the data pool in some way to produce a single number. Water Quality Index (WQI) achieves these objectives and is of great value in water resource management.
Groundwater constitutes an important source of water for drinking, agriculture and industrial production. The use of groundwater has increased significantly in the last decades due to its widespread occurrence and overall good quality. Water quality index exhibits the overall water quality at a specific location and specific time based on several water quality parameters. The objective of an index is to turn complex quality data in to information that is understandable and usable by the public. The water quality of the Kadapa town varied from excellent to good. The high value of WQI at these stations has been found to be mainly from values of fluoride, Electrical conductivity. In some of the collected samples, the concentrations of these parameters exceed the permissible limits of WHO and ISI standards. After evaluating the data of this study it is concluded that there is an instant need to take ameliorative steps in Kadapa, Badvel, Kalasapadu, Porumamilla mandals, Vemula, Vempalli of Y.S.R District to prevent the population from groundwater pollution. Measures on a groundwater-quality monitoring program are suggested for the sustainable development of this area.
The degree of treatment or treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment plant depends primarily on the condition and best usage of the receiving stream. Work is carried out here for a city which is one of the highly industrialized cities and has number of small and medium scale textile units scattered all over the city. This city has waste water treatment plant which treats the waste water and dispose the effluent in the river. Last few years the river is facing lot of pollution problems. It is necessary to study the river assimilation capacity, possible modifications to the treatment efficiency of waste water treatment plant by studying river pollution parameters. Computer programming shall be used to study the effect of different parameters on pollution treatment efficiency. Present book deals with one of such approach, prime aim of which is having to find the sensitivity of river pollution parameters. This book also involves calculating Water Quality Index (wqi) of the river water.
The most effective means of consistently ensuring the safety of a drinking water supply is through the use of a comprehensive risk assessment approach that encompasses all steps in water supply from catchment to consumer. The approach of this book is to promote an understanding of the entire water supply system, including the hazards that can compromise drinking water quality, safety and develops effective measures to assess and manage risks arising from those hazards using spatial model. Comparative evaluation of certain physical, chemical and biological characteristics of raw, treated and potable water at distribution network has been ongoing. Applying a GIS model will provide visual impacts for various hazards using WQI, which has formed a series of prediction maps for risk assessment. The objective of this book is to help researchers, professionals, and end-users working in water supply systems with the identification of relevant hazards by providing a catalogue with potential hazards of technical, environmental or human origin for the entire system.
Different models of Water Quality Indices (WQIs) and Water Pollution Indices (WPIs) were considered as effective tools to assess the water quality and suitability for different purposes. Water and sediments samples were collected monthly from Dec., 2012 to Nov., 2013. Thirty-one water variables were measured to assess the water quality and degree of pollution. Some heavy metals in water and sediments, also TPHs, n-alkanes and PAHs were detected. According to GWQI, DWQI and IWQI ranges, the water can be classified as poor - marginal for general and irrigation use. According to NSF-WQI range the water classified as poor-unsuitable for drinking use. The water can be considered as medium - excellent for aquaculture use according to MOC-WQI range. TSI range referred to mesotrophy- eutrophy water, whereas water can be classified as very high trophic level according to TRIX range. OPI range referred to weak organic -non organic pollution status. HPI range referred to polluted water according to impermissible values of dissolved Pb, Fe and Cd. Source of n-alkanes was mainly biogenic and pyrogenic and at least petrogenic, while the source of PAHs compounds pyrogenic and petrogenic.
Rivers play an imperative role in the development of nation and sustenance of life, which are being polluted due to acquisitive nature of human. Hydrobiology of river Ramganga from Kalagarh (upstream) to Moradabad city (down stream) also known as Brass city , have studied for three years. Spatio-temporal variations in several physico-chemical parameters, ichthyodiversity and fishing activities in the river were undertaken. The study exploring that the downstream of the river were heavily polluted due to excessive discharge of untreated industrial effluent containing heavy metals. The fish diversity includes total 26 species belonging to 9 families. Decreasing trend in the species richness was observed when moving to downstream which was related to less DO content and high load of pollution in the river. On the basis of Water Quality Index (WQI) the river was classified into permissible, slight, moderate and heavily polluted.Multivariate statistical methods were used for interpretations of hydrochemical parameters. The book would be of interest to Academicians,Aquatic Scientists, Researchers,Water works department,fishery department, Planners and Policy makers of river basin.
Environmental Impact Assessment is essential for an ecologically sustainable development. The industrial and other activities of man have an impact on physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in the environment. The problems of soil and water quality in and around industries are attracting attention for the last couple of decades due to unscientific industrialization, indiscriminate disposal of solid/liquid waste and extensive use of chemicals. The comprehensive analysis is may address the soil/water quality issues in industrial areas. In this work we have taken Pharmaceutical industry as case to study the water/soil quality. The water/soil analyzed sample values are used for the preparation of Soil Quality Index (SQI) & Water Quality Index (WQI). The emerging technologies Remote sensing, GIS, GPS and field studies are used for the generation of various thematic maps. The spatial distribution maps of soil and water quality parameters are generated using ArcGIS software for assessing the impact levels around the industry. Based on the findings of pollution impact levels, the suitable remedial measures are suggested along with a proforma of Environmental Management Plan.
The physico-chemical characteristics of Jayakwadi dam water has been studied during Jan 1989 to Dec 2010. Seasonal variations in water quality parameters in rainy, winter and summer seasons are observed. The result revealed that there were significant seasonal variations in some physico-chemical parameters and WQI . An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using water quality parameters such as Turbidity, pH, Chlorides, Free saline ammonia as N, Albuminoid Ammonia as N, Dissolved oxygen, Nitrate, Total hardness , Total dissolved solids, Fixed Solids, Iron (Fe), Fluoride (F), Total alkalinity as CaCO3 etc of raw water from Jayakwadi dam through M.S.Pipe line to Farola water treatment plant and filtered water are measured by Regional public health laboratory Aurangabad, Water Quality Index is a dimensionless number with values ranking 0 to 100 A lower index values represent good water & higher index value indicates poor water. This numerical index can be used as management tool in water quality assessment. The water quality index results indicate poor status of raw water during rainy and winter season.
Water quality indices (WQI) were introduced aiming at giving a single value to the water quality of a source, thus reducing great amount of parameters into a simpler expression . In this book, an attempt has been made to devise a methodology to analyse various water quality parameters and then integrate them with WQI and Geographic Information System (GIS) for an effective interpretation of the quality status of groundwater by taking Delhi as a case study. Physical and chemical analysis of groundwater of Delhi was conducted and results interpreted using WQI and finally translated in sensitivity maps using GIS. The book delves in understanding water quality assessment and should be useful for anyone interested in groundwater quality issues from general public and students to policy makers.
An integrated survey based on satellite image interpretation corroborated with limited field checks were carried out with a view to delineate the ground water potential in parts of Y.S.R District district, Andhra Pradesh, South India. The interpretation of Remote Sensing data & GIS in conjunction with conventional data and sufficient ground truth information makes it possible to identify and outline various ground features such as geological structures, geomorphic features and their hydrologic characters that may serve as direct or indirect indicators of the presence of ground and surface water. In the present study, a detailed investigation was carried out with an objective of identifying the index of groundwater by using Water Quality Index (WQI) method. Prominent water quality parameters controlling the hydrochemical evolution of aquifer system was studied.