The most effective means of consistently ensuring the safety of a drinking water supply is through the use of a comprehensive risk assessment approach that encompasses all steps in water supply from catchment to consumer. The approach of this book is to promote an understanding of the entire water supply system, including the hazards that can compromise drinking water quality, safety and develops effective measures to assess and manage risks arising from those hazards using spatial model. Comparative evaluation of certain physical, chemical and biological characteristics of raw, treated and potable water at distribution network has been ongoing. Applying a GIS model will provide visual impacts for various hazards using WQI, which has formed a series of prediction maps for risk assessment. The objective of this book is to help researchers, professionals, and end-users working in water supply systems with the identification of relevant hazards by providing a catalogue with potential hazards of technical, environmental or human origin for the entire system.
Wetlands are vital water bodies, as crucial in a natural ecosystem as kidney in a human body. Apart from being highly productive as the habitat of birds, fishes and a variety of other aquatic life forms-micro-organisms. Wetlands provide other ecosystem services from maintaining the natural balance and for sustaining human livelihoods. Overall wetlands all over the country are exhibiting varying degrees of environmental degradation caused by encroachments, Eutrophication, siltation, urbanization and anthropogenic activities. There is also a misconception that wetlands are only wastelands. As a result, many precious wetlands have been converted to other uses all over in the world. Highly adaptable solutions must be found to permit development activities, including tourism,subsistence agriculture, and conservation of wildlife to be each given a fair share' of the one biome the wetland. This book provides an overview of the wetland study including flora, avifauna, management and restoration measures. It contains methodology of avifaunal survey, water quality analysis and WQI. It should be especially useful to those who are working in the field of wetland and environment conservation.