Environmental Impact Assessment is essential for an ecologically sustainable development. The industrial and other activities of man have an impact on physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in the environment. The problems of soil and water quality in and around industries are attracting attention for the last couple of decades due to unscientific industrialization, indiscriminate disposal of solid/liquid waste and extensive use of chemicals. The comprehensive analysis is may address the soil/water quality issues in industrial areas. In this work we have taken Pharmaceutical industry as case to study the water/soil quality. The water/soil analyzed sample values are used for the preparation of Soil Quality Index (SQI) & Water Quality Index (WQI). The emerging technologies Remote sensing, GIS, GPS and field studies are used for the generation of various thematic maps. The spatial distribution maps of soil and water quality parameters are generated using ArcGIS software for assessing the impact levels around the industry. Based on the findings of pollution impact levels, the suitable remedial measures are suggested along with a proforma of Environmental Management Plan.
The book describes the role of Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing in modeling the groundwater distribution pattern and quality in the state of Rajasthan in India. Groundwater table map of various time series (pre and post monsoon), rainfall maps and fluctuating patterns have been generated using the groundwater level data of pre and post monsoon seasons and daily rainfall datasets of Rajasthan. Further, the OCEANSAT - 2 OCM satellite data has been used for generating the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index maps. Groundwater quality maps (WQI maps) of Rajasthan have been generated using groundwater chemical data of the state. The WQI maps indicated that the groundwater quality decreases from the South-East to the North-West of the state. The safest zone is in the South-Eastern part of the study area. Various Geo-statistical techniques have been applied in generating all these maps.
Recycling of aluminum chips by hot extrusion is a metal forming technique, which requires considerably less energy than conventional recycling by remelting. The aluminum chips sorted by alloy type were first chemically washed in a mid-alkaline bath and then completely dried in an industrial furnace, compacted to billets, heated up to extrusion temperature and directly extruded into finished products without remelting. This method utilizes not only significantly less energy compared to conventional recycling by remelting but also prevents the material loss that is typical in remelting of fine aluminum scrap in the form of chips.The main aim of this research was to investigate hot extrusion of aluminum chips including principles of operation, process technology and equipment, and to develop this process further by solving the encountered problems to allow its application in industry. First the effect of extrusion process parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the profiles recycled from chips was investigated. It was shown that the extrusion parameters like extrusion ratio, die design and the billet temperature predominantly define the properties of the recycled profiles. The mechanism of chip welding during aluminum extrusion was investigated using the analysis of the microstructural evolution. Based on the analytical solutions for the problem of longitudinal seam weld formation, a new approach was developed to analyze the welding of the aluminum chips. The boundary conditions for sound chip welding can be defined using the proposed analytical approach as well as with the help of simulations using the finite element method (FEM). A welding-quality-index (WQI) is introduced to define the chip welding quality under given process conditions, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate the success of recycling aluminum chips by hot extrusion. An innovative process design utilizing a closing cap and a new punch design was developed to eliminate the formation of air blisters during hot extrusion of chips.
The availability of water in terms of both quantity and quality is essential to the very existence of mankind. Earlier people recognized the importance of water from quantity view point. Recognition of the importance of water quality developed more slowly. In the field of water resource management, information on the water quality is an essential input. Changes in water quality can be the result of domestic, industrial or agricultural discharges. The number of physical and chemical parameters such as pH, DO, alkalinity, conductivity, total solids, hardness, inorganic and organic trace elements etc. That needs to be monitored for proper assessment of water quality of any water resource is very large. In water resource management, where classification and comparison of different water resources on the basis of water quality is often requisite, it will be more convenient to integrate the data pool in some way to produce a single number. Water Quality Index (WQI) achieves these objectives and is of great value in water resource management.
Rivers play an imperative role in the development of nation and sustenance of life, which are being polluted due to acquisitive nature of human. Hydrobiology of river Ramganga from Kalagarh (upstream) to Moradabad city (down stream) also known as Brass city , have studied for three years. Spatio-temporal variations in several physico-chemical parameters, ichthyodiversity and fishing activities in the river were undertaken. The study exploring that the downstream of the river were heavily polluted due to excessive discharge of untreated industrial effluent containing heavy metals. The fish diversity includes total 26 species belonging to 9 families. Decreasing trend in the species richness was observed when moving to downstream which was related to less DO content and high load of pollution in the river. On the basis of Water Quality Index (WQI) the river was classified into permissible, slight, moderate and heavily polluted.Multivariate statistical methods were used for interpretations of hydrochemical parameters. The book would be of interest to Academicians,Aquatic Scientists, Researchers,Water works department,fishery department, Planners and Policy makers of river basin.
The physico-chemical characteristics of Jayakwadi dam water has been studied during Jan 1989 to Dec 2010. Seasonal variations in water quality parameters in rainy, winter and summer seasons are observed. The result revealed that there were significant seasonal variations in some physico-chemical parameters and WQI . An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using water quality parameters such as Turbidity, pH, Chlorides, Free saline ammonia as N, Albuminoid Ammonia as N, Dissolved oxygen, Nitrate, Total hardness , Total dissolved solids, Fixed Solids, Iron (Fe), Fluoride (F), Total alkalinity as CaCO3 etc of raw water from Jayakwadi dam through M.S.Pipe line to Farola water treatment plant and filtered water are measured by Regional public health laboratory Aurangabad, Water Quality Index is a dimensionless number with values ranking 0 to 100 A lower index values represent good water & higher index value indicates poor water. This numerical index can be used as management tool in water quality assessment. The water quality index results indicate poor status of raw water during rainy and winter season.
The research presents water quality analysis of Bhadravathi in Karnataka State, India. Fourteen physico-chemical and biological parameters were considered for the analysis. The raster maps created using GIS are used to represent the spatial distribution of the parameters for both pre and post-monsoon seasons. Using physico-chemical parameters, Water Quality Index (WQI) was determined. The WQI shows 11% of the surface water samples fall under very good category during pre-monsoon and 78% in post-monsoon. The water sample at New Bridge site shows sign of pollution throughout year with WQI in the range 50-100 and hence unfit for use. In groundwater samples, 20% of samples in the pre-monsoon and 50% samples during post-monsoon fall under good quality. 50% of water samples during pre-monsoon and 60% of samples during post-monsoon fall under good category and water sample at Haladamma temple are found unfit. Further, QUAL2K model predicted the DO and BOD values considerably well along the Bhadra River from Lakkavalli to Bhadravathi Town. However, the Streeter Phelp s model estimated higher DO as compared to QUAL2K model. This is due to provision of outfall effect in Streeter Phelp s model.
An integrated survey based on satellite image interpretation corroborated with limited field checks were carried out with a view to delineate the ground water potential in parts of Y.S.R District district, Andhra Pradesh, South India. The interpretation of Remote Sensing data & GIS in conjunction with conventional data and sufficient ground truth information makes it possible to identify and outline various ground features such as geological structures, geomorphic features and their hydrologic characters that may serve as direct or indirect indicators of the presence of ground and surface water. In the present study, a detailed investigation was carried out with an objective of identifying the index of groundwater by using Water Quality Index (WQI) method. Prominent water quality parameters controlling the hydrochemical evolution of aquifer system was studied.
Abstract The study area (Green-Belt Project) locates in AL-Najaf Governorate in the coordinates (44o 10' 0"E & 44o 20' 0"E) and (32o 5' 0"N & 32o 15' 0"N). The study area has covering an area of about (90) km2, which contains many geological formations and represents part of Najaf-Karbala plateau. The project relies on ground water as sources of irrigation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of ground water in the project area for irrigation and suitability to use in potable purposes. Directorate of agriculture in cooperation with Directorate of wells of Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf implemented five wells which is used as sources of irrigation in this project that identified as GFW1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 , respectively in this study. GFW4 and 5 are locate in semi confined Dammam formation and deeper then GFW1, 2 and 3 which located in unconfined Dibdiba. Eleven parameters as: pH, electrical conductivity, EC, total dissolved solids, TDS, sulfate ion, SO4-2, oil & grease, O&G, cadmium, Cd, lead, Pb, chromium, Cr, iron, Fe, copper, Cu, and zinc, Zn have been selected to determine water quality index (WQI) for irrigation and potable purposes according to maximum levels of standards