The most effective means of consistently ensuring the safety of a drinking water supply is through the use of a comprehensive risk assessment approach that encompasses all steps in water supply from catchment to consumer. The approach of this book is to promote an understanding of the entire water supply system, including the hazards that can compromise drinking water quality, safety and develops effective measures to assess and manage risks arising from those hazards using spatial model. Comparative evaluation of certain physical, chemical and biological characteristics of raw, treated and potable water at distribution network has been ongoing. Applying a GIS model will provide visual impacts for various hazards using WQI, which has formed a series of prediction maps for risk assessment. The objective of this book is to help researchers, professionals, and end-users working in water supply systems with the identification of relevant hazards by providing a catalogue with potential hazards of technical, environmental or human origin for the entire system.
The book describes the role of Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing in modeling the groundwater distribution pattern and quality in the state of Rajasthan in India. Groundwater table map of various time series (pre and post monsoon), rainfall maps and fluctuating patterns have been generated using the groundwater level data of pre and post monsoon seasons and daily rainfall datasets of Rajasthan. Further, the OCEANSAT - 2 OCM satellite data has been used for generating the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index maps. Groundwater quality maps (WQI maps) of Rajasthan have been generated using groundwater chemical data of the state. The WQI maps indicated that the groundwater quality decreases from the South-East to the North-West of the state. The safest zone is in the South-Eastern part of the study area. Various Geo-statistical techniques have been applied in generating all these maps.
Recycling of aluminum chips by hot extrusion is a metal forming technique, which requires considerably less energy than conventional recycling by remelting. The aluminum chips sorted by alloy type were first chemically washed in a mid-alkaline bath and then completely dried in an industrial furnace, compacted to billets, heated up to extrusion temperature and directly extruded into finished products without remelting. This method utilizes not only significantly less energy compared to conventional recycling by remelting but also prevents the material loss that is typical in remelting of fine aluminum scrap in the form of chips.The main aim of this research was to investigate hot extrusion of aluminum chips including principles of operation, process technology and equipment, and to develop this process further by solving the encountered problems to allow its application in industry. First the effect of extrusion process parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the profiles recycled from chips was investigated. It was shown that the extrusion parameters like extrusion ratio, die design and the billet temperature predominantly define the properties of the recycled profiles. The mechanism of chip welding during aluminum extrusion was investigated using the analysis of the microstructural evolution. Based on the analytical solutions for the problem of longitudinal seam weld formation, a new approach was developed to analyze the welding of the aluminum chips. The boundary conditions for sound chip welding can be defined using the proposed analytical approach as well as with the help of simulations using the finite element method (FEM). A welding-quality-index (WQI) is introduced to define the chip welding quality under given process conditions, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate the success of recycling aluminum chips by hot extrusion. An innovative process design utilizing a closing cap and a new punch design was developed to eliminate the formation of air blisters during hot extrusion of chips.
This book deals with the impact of urbanization on Lake Ecosystem. There are six chapters in the book where, planning and scientific execution of the work is well done. The outcome of the study is very significant for the restoration and modeling for lake conservation. The longitudinal profile of the lake with hydrodynamics, climatological parameters and the impact of urban settlements are covered. A grid system of mapping to understand the downstream and upstream characteristics of the lake basin are presented. The WQI of the Lake are plotted. The software programme 'HYCH' has been used to know the quality of the water for Irrigational suitability (Handa, Piper, Stuyfzand, USSL and Wilcox). The lake sediments are analysed for grain size pattern and X-ray Diffractometer. The Ecological Modeling of the Dalvoy Lake was made using the statistical model of hydrochemical facies. To manage the nutrients, simulations were made using the PAMOLARE 1 layer model (UNEP-DTIE-IETC and ILEC).
The physico-chemical characteristics of Jayakwadi dam water has been studied during Jan 1989 to Dec 2010. Seasonal variations in water quality parameters in rainy, winter and summer seasons are observed. The result revealed that there were significant seasonal variations in some physico-chemical parameters and WQI . An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using water quality parameters such as Turbidity, pH, Chlorides, Free saline ammonia as N, Albuminoid Ammonia as N, Dissolved oxygen, Nitrate, Total hardness , Total dissolved solids, Fixed Solids, Iron (Fe), Fluoride (F), Total alkalinity as CaCO3 etc of raw water from Jayakwadi dam through M.S.Pipe line to Farola water treatment plant and filtered water are measured by Regional public health laboratory Aurangabad, Water Quality Index is a dimensionless number with values ranking 0 to 100 A lower index values represent good water & higher index value indicates poor water. This numerical index can be used as management tool in water quality assessment. The water quality index results indicate poor status of raw water during rainy and winter season.
Water quality indices (WQI) were introduced aiming at giving a single value to the water quality of a source, thus reducing great amount of parameters into a simpler expression . In this book, an attempt has been made to devise a methodology to analyse various water quality parameters and then integrate them with WQI and Geographic Information System (GIS) for an effective interpretation of the quality status of groundwater by taking Delhi as a case study. Physical and chemical analysis of groundwater of Delhi was conducted and results interpreted using WQI and finally translated in sensitivity maps using GIS. The book delves in understanding water quality assessment and should be useful for anyone interested in groundwater quality issues from general public and students to policy makers.
The research presents water quality analysis of Bhadravathi in Karnataka State, India. Fourteen physico-chemical and biological parameters were considered for the analysis. The raster maps created using GIS are used to represent the spatial distribution of the parameters for both pre and post-monsoon seasons. Using physico-chemical parameters, Water Quality Index (WQI) was determined. The WQI shows 11% of the surface water samples fall under very good category during pre-monsoon and 78% in post-monsoon. The water sample at New Bridge site shows sign of pollution throughout year with WQI in the range 50-100 and hence unfit for use. In groundwater samples, 20% of samples in the pre-monsoon and 50% samples during post-monsoon fall under good quality. 50% of water samples during pre-monsoon and 60% of samples during post-monsoon fall under good category and water sample at Haladamma temple are found unfit. Further, QUAL2K model predicted the DO and BOD values considerably well along the Bhadra River from Lakkavalli to Bhadravathi Town. However, the Streeter Phelp s model estimated higher DO as compared to QUAL2K model. This is due to provision of outfall effect in Streeter Phelp s model.
An integrated survey based on satellite image interpretation corroborated with limited field checks were carried out with a view to delineate the ground water potential in parts of Y.S.R District district, Andhra Pradesh, South India. The interpretation of Remote Sensing data & GIS in conjunction with conventional data and sufficient ground truth information makes it possible to identify and outline various ground features such as geological structures, geomorphic features and their hydrologic characters that may serve as direct or indirect indicators of the presence of ground and surface water. In the present study, a detailed investigation was carried out with an objective of identifying the index of groundwater by using Water Quality Index (WQI) method. Prominent water quality parameters controlling the hydrochemical evolution of aquifer system was studied.
The approach of this book is to promote an understanding of surface water quality, including the hazards that can compromise water quality and develops effective measures to assess and manage risks arising from those hazards using spatial and statistical models. Evaluation of 42 drinking water quality parameters has been done on a monthly basis during 6 years. Applying a GIS tool will provide visual impacts for various hazards using WQI, which has formed a series of prediction maps for risk assessment. The results showed that surface water is remarkably influenced by wastewater discharge, especially at drought period. Prediction model proved a practical and economical value that gives an easier and effective solution through selecting the best decisions to enhance water quality, assurance of public health protection can be gained and be providing a comprehensive preventive strategy for drinking water system management can be achieved. The book is written for post-graduates, researchers and professionals involved in water quality monitoring and assessment of surface waters and want to improve the scope and reliability of their systems with using water dynamic prediction models.